Rune-RSPS

Welcome to Rune-RSPS, where the future is now. We've got everything that a RSPS community ever needs! from Server Status Lists, all the way to Toplists, and a well organized forums layout! Sign up, and don't miss out.

The Official Community Site


    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 6:39 am

    151, Im good Smile xDD
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 6:42 am

    Spoiler:
    Nervous system
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Nervous system
    TE-Nervous system diagram.svg
    The Human Nervous System.
    Latin systema nervosum
    Neuro logo.png Neuroscience portal

    The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous system of vertebrates (such as humans) contains the brain, spinal cord, and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each other and to the central nervous system. These regions are all interconnected by means of complex neural pathways. The enteric nervous system, a subsystem of the peripheral nervous system, has the capacity, even when severed from the rest of the nervous system through its primary connection by the vagus nerve, to function independently in controlling the gastrointestinal system.

    Neurons send signals to other cells as electrochemical waves travelling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses. A cell that receives a synaptic signal may be excited, inhibited, or otherwise modulated. Sensory neurons are activated by physical stimuli impinging on them, and send signals that inform the central nervous system of the state of the body and the external environment. Motor neurons, situated either in the central nervous system or in peripheral ganglia, connect the nervous system to muscles or other effector organs. Central neurons, which in vertebrates greatly outnumber the other types, make all of their input and output connections with other neurons. The interactions of all these types of neurons form neural circuits that generate an organism's perception of the world and determine its behavior. Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply glia), which provide structural and metabolic support.

    Nervous systems are found in most multicellular animals, but vary greatly in complexity.[1] Sponges have no nervous system, although they have homologs of many genes that play crucial roles in nervous system function, and are capable of several whole-body responses, including a primitive form of locomotion. Placozoans and mesozoans—other simple animals that are not classified as part of the subkingdom Eumetazoa—also have no nervous system. In Radiata (radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish) the nervous system consists of a simple nerve net. Bilateria, which include the great majority of vertebrates and invertebrates, all have a nervous system containing a brain, one central cord (or two running in parallel), and peripheral nerves. The size of the bilaterian nervous system ranges from a few hundred cells in the simplest worms, to on the order of 100 billion cells in humans. Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system.
    Contents
    [hide]

    1 Structure
    1.1 Cells
    1.1.1 Neurons
    1.1.2 Glial cells
    1.2 Anatomy in vertebrates
    1.3 Comparative anatomy and evolution
    1.3.1 Neural precursors in sponges
    1.3.2 Radiata
    1.3.3 Bilateria
    1.3.4 Worms
    1.3.5 Arthropods
    1.3.6 "Identified" neurons
    2 Function
    2.1 Neurons and synapses
    2.2 Neural circuits and systems
    2.2.1 Reflexes and other stimulus-response circuits
    2.2.2 Intrinsic pattern generation
    3 Development
    4 Pathology
    5 References
    6 External links

    Structure

    The nervous system derives its name from nerves, which are cylindrical bundles of fibers that emanate from the brain and central cord, and branch repeatedly to innervate every part of the body.[2] Nerves are large enough to have been recognized by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans,[3] but their internal structure was not understood until it became possible to examine them using a microscope.[4] A microscopic examination shows that nerves consist primarily of the axons of neurons, along with a variety of membranes that wrap around them and segregate them into fascicles. The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves—their cell bodies reside within the brain, central cord, or peripheral ganglia.[2]

    All animals more advanced than sponges have nervous systems. However, even sponges, unicellular animals, and non-animals such as slime molds have cell-to-cell signalling mechanisms that are precursors to those of neurons.[5] In radially symmetric animals such as the jellyfish and hydra, the nervous system consists of a diffuse network of isolated cells.[6] In bilaterian animals, which make up the great majority of existing species, the nervous system has a common structure that originated early in the Cambrian period, over 500 million years ago.[7]
    Cells

    The nervous system is primarily made up of two categories of cells: neurons and glial cells.
    Neurons
    Structure of a typical neuron Neuron
    At one end of an elongated structure is a branching mass. At the centre of this mass is the nucleus and the branches are dendrites. A thick axon trails away from the mass, ending with further branching which are labeled as axon terminals. Along the axon are a number of protuberances labeled as myelin sheaths.
    Dendrite
    Soma
    Axon
    Nucleus
    Node of
    Ranvier
    Axon terminal
    Schwann cell
    Myelin sheath

    The nervous system is defined by the presence of a special type of cell—the neuron (sometimes called "neurone" or "nerve cell").[2] Neurons can be distinguished from other cells in a number of ways, but their most fundamental property is that they communicate with other cells via synapses, which are membrane-to-membrane junctions containing molecular machinery that allows rapid transmission of signals, either electrical or chemical.[2] Many types of neuron possess an axon, a protoplasmic protrusion that can extend to distant parts of the body and make thousands of synaptic contacts.[8] Axons frequently travel through the body in bundles called nerves.

    Even in the nervous system of a single species such as humans, hundreds of different types of neurons exist, with a wide variety of morphologies and functions.[8] These include sensory neurons that transmute physical stimuli such as light and sound into neural signals, and motor neurons that transmute neural signals into activation of muscles or glands; however in many species the great majority of neurons receive all of their input from other neurons and send their output to other neurons.[2]
    Glial cells

    Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.[9] In the human brain, it is estimated that the total number of glia roughly equals the number of neurons, although the proportions vary in different brain areas.[10] Among the most important functions of glial cells are to support neurons and hold them in place; to supply nutrients to neurons; to insulate neurons electrically; to destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons; and to provide guidance cues directing the axons of neurons to their targets.[9] A very important type of glial cell (oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system) generates layers of a fatty substance called myelin that wraps around axons and provides electrical insulation which allows them to transmit action potentials much more rapidly and efficiently.
    Anatomy in vertebrates
    Wiki letter w cropped.svg This section requires expansion.
    Diagram showing the major divisions of the vertebrate nervous system.

    The nervous system of vertebrate animals (including humans) is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS).[11]

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the largest part, and includes the brain and spinal cord.[11] The spinal cavity contains the spinal cord, while the head contains the brain. The CNS is enclosed and protected by meninges, a three-layered system of membranes, including a tough, leathery outer layer called the dura mater. The brain is also protected by the skull, and the spinal cord by the vertebrae.

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a collective term for the nervous system structures that do not lie within the CNS.[12] The large majority of the axon bundles called nerves are considered to belong to the PNS, even when the cell bodies of the neurons to which they belong reside within the brain or spinal cord. The PNS is divided into somatic and visceral parts. The somatic part consists of the nerves that innervate the skin, joints, and muscles. The cell bodies of somatic sensory neurons lie in dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord. The visceral part, also known as the autonomic nervous system, contains neurons that innervate the internal organs, blood vessels, and glands. The autonomic nervous system itself consists of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. Some authors also include sensory neurons whose cell bodies lie in the periphery (for senses such as hearing) as part of the PNS; others, however, omit them.[13]
    Horizontal bisection of the head of an adult man, showing skin, skull, and brain with grey matter (brown in this image) and underlying white matter

    The vertebrate nervous system can also be divided into areas called grey matter ("gray matter" in American spelling) and white matter.[14] Grey matter (which is only grey in preserved tissue, and is better described as pink or light brown in living tissue) contains a high proportion of cell bodies of neurons. White matter is composed mainly of myelinated axons, and takes its color from the myelin. White matter includes all of the peripheral nerves, and much of the interior of the brain and spinal cord. Grey matter is found in clusters of neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and in cortical layers that line their surfaces. There is an anatomical convention that a cluster of neurons in the brain or spinal cord is called a nucleus, whereas a cluster of neurons in the periphery is called a ganglion.[15] There are, however, a few exceptions to this rule, notably including the part of the forebrain called the basal ganglia.[16]
    Comparative anatomy and evolution
    Neural precursors in sponges

    Sponges have no cells connected to each other by synaptic junctions, that is, no neurons, and therefore no nervous system. They do, however, have homologs of many genes that play key roles in synaptic function. Recent studies have shown that sponge cells express a group of proteins that cluster together to form a structure resembling a postsynaptic density (the signal-receiving part of a synapse).[5] However, the function of this structure is currently unclear. Although sponge cells do not show synaptic transmission, they do communicate with each other via calcium waves and other impulses, which mediate some simple actions such as whole-body contraction.[17]
    Radiata

    Jellyfish, comb jellies, and related animals have diffuse nerve nets rather than a central nervous system. In most jellyfish the nerve net is spread more or less evenly across the body; in comb jellies it is concentrated near the mouth. The nerve nets consist of sensory neurons that pick up chemical, tactile, and visual signals, motor neurons that can activate contractions of the body wall, and intermediate neurons that detect patterns of activity in the sensory neurons and send signals to groups of motor neurons as a result. In some cases groups of intermediate neurons are clustered into discrete ganglia.[6]

    The development of the nervous system in radiata is relatively unstructured. Unlike bilaterians, radiata only have two primordial cell layers, endoderm and ectoderm. Neurons are generated from a special set of ectodermal precursor cells, which also serve as precursors for every other ectodermal cell type.[18]
    Bilateria
    A rod-shaped body contains a digestive system running from the mouth at one end to the anus at the other. Alongside the digestive system is a nerve cord with a brain at the end, near to the mouth.
    Nervous system of a bilaterian animal, in the form of a nerve cord with segmental enlargements, and a "brain" at the front

    The vast majority of existing animals are bilaterians, meaning animals with left and right sides that are approximate mirror images of each other. All bilateria are thought to have descended from a common wormlike ancestor that appeared in the Cambrian period, 550–600 million years ago.[7] The fundamental bilaterian body form is a tube with a hollow gut cavity running from mouth to anus, and a nerve cord with an enlargement (a "ganglion") for each body segment, with an especially large ganglion at the front, called the "brain".
    Area of the human body surface innervated by each spinal nerve

    Even mammals, including humans, show the segmented bilaterian body plan at the level of the nervous system. The spinal cord contains a series of segmental ganglia, each giving rise to motor and sensory nerves that innervate a portion of the body surface and underlying musculature. On the limbs, the layout of the innervation pattern is complex, but on the trunk it gives rise to a series of narrow bands. The top three segments belong to the brain, giving rise to the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.[19]

    Bilaterians can be divided, based on events that occur very early in embryonic development, into two groups (superphyla) called protostomes and deuterostomes.[20] Deuterostomes include vertebrates as well as echinoderms, hemichordates (mainly acorn worms), and Xenoturbellidans.[21] Protostomes, the more diverse group, include arthropods, molluscs, and numerous types of worms. There is a basic difference between the two groups in the placement of the nervous system within the body: protostomes possess a nerve cord on the ventral (usually bottom) side of the body, whereas in deuterostomes the nerve cord is on the dorsal (usually top) side. In fact, numerous aspects of the body are inverted between the two groups, including the expression patterns of several genes that show dorsal-to-ventral gradients. Most anatomists now consider that the bodies of protostomes and deuterostomes are "flipped over" with respect to each other, a hypothesis that was first proposed by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire for insects in comparison to vertebrates. Thus insects, for example, have nerve cords that run along the ventral midline of the body, while all vertebrates have spinal cords that run along the dorsal midline.[22]
    Worms
    This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Please help to ensure that disputed facts are reliably sourced. See the relevant discussion on the talk page. (May 2010)
    Earthworm nervous system. Top: side view of the front of the worm. Bottom: nervous system in isolation, viewed from above

    Worms are the simplest bilaterian animals, and reveal the basic structure of the bilaterian nervous system in the most straightforward way. As an example, earthworms have dual nerve cords running along the length of the body and merging at the tail and the mouth. These nerve cords are connected by transverse nerves like the rungs of a ladder. These transverse nerves help coordinate the two sides of the animal. Two ganglia at the head end function similar to a simple brain. Photoreceptors on the animal's eyespots provide sensory information on light and dark.[23]

    The nervous system of one very small worm, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, has been mapped out down to the synaptic level. Every neuron and its cellular lineage has been recorded and most, if not all, of the neural connections are known. In this species, the nervous system is sexually dimorphic; the nervous systems of the two sexes, males and hermaphrodites, have different numbers of neurons and groups of neurons that perform sex-specific functions. In C. elegans, males have exactly 383 neurons, while hermaphrodites have exactly 302 neurons.[24]
    Arthropods
    Internal anatomy of a spider, showing the nervous system in blue

    Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a nervous system made up of a series of ganglia, connected by a ventral nerve cord made up of two parallel connectives running along the length of the belly.[25] Typically, each body segment has one ganglion on each side, though some ganglia are fused to form the brain and other large ganglia. The head segment contains the brain, also known as the supraesophageal ganglion. In the insect nervous system, the brain is anatomically divided into the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, and tritocerebrum. Immediately behind the brain is the subesophageal ganglion, which is composed of three pairs of fused ganglia. It controls the mouthparts, the salivary glands and certain muscles. Many arthropods have well-developed sensory organs, including compound eyes for vision and antennae for olfaction and pheromone sensation. The sensory information from these organs is processed by the brain.

    In insects, many neurons have cell bodies that are positioned at the edge of the brain and are electrically passive—the cell bodies serve only to provide metabolic support and do not participate in signalling. A protoplasmic fiber runs from the cell body and branches profusely, with some parts transmitting signals and other parts receiving signals. Thus, most parts of the insect brain have passive cell bodies arranged around the periphery, while the neural signal processing takes place in a tangle of protoplasmic fibers called neuropil, in the interior.[26]
    "Identified" neurons

    A neuron is called identified if it has properties that distinguish it from every other neuron in the same animal—properties such as location, neurotransmitter, gene expression pattern, and connectivity—and if every individual organism belonging to the same species has one and only one neuron with the same set of properties.[27] In vertebrate nervous systems very few neurons are "identified" in this sense—in humans, there are believed to be none—but in simpler nervous systems, some or all neurons may be thus unique. In the roundworm C. elegans, whose nervous system is the most thoroughly described of any animal's, every neuron in the body is uniquely identifiable, with the same location and the same connections in every individual worm. One notable consequence of this fact is that the form of the C. elegans nervous system is completely specified by the genome, with no experience-dependent plasticity.[24]

    The brains of many molluscs and insects also contain substantial numbers of identified neurons.[27] In vertebrates, the best known identified neurons are the gigantic Mauthner cells of fish.[28] Every fish has two Mauthner cells, located in the bottom part of the brainstem, one on the left side and one on the right. Each Mauthner cell has an axon that crosses over, innervating neurons at the same brain level and then travelling down through the spinal cord, making numerous connections as it goes. The synapses generated by a Mauthner cell are so powerful that a single action potential gives rise to a major behavioral response: within milliseconds the fish curves its body into a C-shape, then straightens, thereby propelling itself rapidly forward. Functionally this is a fast escape response, triggered most easily by a strong sound wave or pressure wave impinging on the lateral line organ of the fish. Mauther cells are not the only identified neurons in fish—there are about 20 more types, including pairs of "Mauthner cell analogs" in each spinal segmental nucleus. Although a Mauthner cell is capable of bringing about an escape response all by itself, in the context of ordinary behavior other types of cells usually contribute to shaping the amplitude and direction of the response.

    Mauthner cells have been described as command neurons. A command neuron is a special type of identified neuron, defined as a neuron that is capable of driving a specific behavior all by itself.[29] Such neurons appear most commonly in the fast escape systems of various species—the squid giant axon and squid giant synapse, used for pioneering experiments in neurophysiology because of their enormous size, both participate in the fast escape circuit of the squid. The concept of a command neuron has, however, become controversial, because of studies showing that some neurons that initially appeared to fit the description were really only capable of evoking a response in a limited set of circumstances.[30]
    Function

    At the most basic level, the function of the nervous system is to send signals from one cell to others, or from one part of the body to others. There are multiple ways that a cell can send signals to other cells. One is by releasing chemicals called hormones into the internal circulation, so that they can diffuse to distant sites. In contrast to this "broadcast" mode of signaling, the nervous system provides "point-to-point" signals—neurons project their axons to specific target areas and make synaptic connections with specific target cells.[31] Thus, neural signaling is capable of a much higher level of specificity than hormonal signaling. It is also much faster: the fastest nerve signals travel at speeds that exceed 100 meters per second.

    At a more integrative level, the primary function of the nervous system is to control the body.[2] It does this by extracting information from the environment using sensory receptors, sending signals that encode this information into the central nervous system, processing the information to determine an appropriate response, and sending output signals to muscles or glands to activate the response. The evolution of a complex nervous system has made it possible for various animal species to have advanced perception abilities such as vision, complex social interactions, rapid coordination of organ systems, and integrated processing of concurrent signals. In humans, the sophistication of the nervous system makes it possible to have language, abstract representation of concepts, transmission of culture, and many other features of human society that would not exist without the human brain.
    Neurons and synapses
    Major elements in synaptic transmission. An electrochemical wave called an action potential travels along the axon of a neuron. When the wave reaches a synapse, it provokes release of a small amount of neurotransmitter molecules, which bind to chemical receptor molecules located in the membrane of the target cell.

    Most neurons send signals via their axons, although some types are capable of dendrite-to-dendrite communication. (In fact, the types of neurons called amacrine cells have no axons, and communicate only via their dendrites.) Neural signals propagate along an axon in the form of electrochemical waves called action potentials, which produce cell-to-cell signals at points where axon terminals make synaptic contact with other cells.[32]

    Synapses may be electrical or chemical. Electrical synapses make direct electrical connections between neurons,[33] but chemical synapses are much more common, and much more diverse in function.[34] At a chemical synapse, the cell that sends signals is called presynaptic, and the cell that receives signals is called postsynaptic. Both the presynaptic and postsynaptic areas are full of molecular machinery that carries out the signalling process. The presynaptic area contains large numbers of tiny spherical vessels called synaptic vesicles, packed with neurotransmitter chemicals.[32] When the presynaptic terminal is electrically stimulated, an array of molecules embedded in the membrane are activated, and cause the contents of the vesicles to be released into the narrow space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes, called the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter then binds to receptors embedded in the postsynaptic membrane, causing them to enter an activated state.[34] Depending on the type of receptor, the resulting effect on the postsynaptic cell may be excitatory, inhibitory, or modulatory in more complex ways. For example, release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at a synaptic contact between a motor neuron and a muscle cell induces rapid contraction of the muscle cell.[35] The entire synaptic transmission process takes only a fraction of a millisecond, although the effects on the postsynaptic cell may last much longer (even indefinitely, in cases where the synaptic signal leads to the formation of a memory trace).[8]
    Structure of a typical chemical synapse
    Synapse Illustration unlabeled.svg
    Postsynaptic
    density
    Voltage-
    gated Ca++
    channel
    Synaptic
    vesicle
    Reuptake
    pump
    Receptor
    Neurotransmitter
    Axon terminal
    Synaptic cleft
    Dendrite

    There are literally hundreds of different types of synapses. In fact, there are over a hundred known neurotransmitters, and many of them have multiple types of receptor.[36] Many synapses use more than one neurotransmitter—a common arrangement is for a synapse to use one fast-acting small-molecule neurotransmitter such as glutamate or GABA, along with one or more peptide neurotransmitters that play slower-acting modulatory roles. Molecular neuroscientists generally divide receptors into two broad groups: chemically gated ion channels and second messenger systems. When a chemically gated ion channel is activated, it forms a passage that allow specific types of ion to flow across the membrane. Depending on the type of ion, the effect on the target cell may be excitatory or inhibitory. When a second messenger system is activated, it starts a cascade of molecular interactions inside the target cell, which may ultimately produce a wide variety of complex effects, such as increasing or decreasing the sensitivity of the cell to stimuli, or even altering gene transcription.

    According to a rule called Dale's principle, which has only a few known exceptions, a neuron releases the same neurotransmitters at all of its synapses.[37] This does not mean, though, that a neuron exerts the same effect on all of its targets, because the effect of a synapse depends not on the neurotransmitter, but on the receptors that it activates.[34] Because different targets can (and frequently do) use different types of receptors, it is possible for a neuron to have excitatory effects on one set of target cells, inhibitory effects on others, and complex modulatory effects on others still. Nevertheless, it happens that the two mo152st widely used neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, each have largely consistent effects. Glutamate has several widely occurring types of receptors, but all of them are excitatory or modulatory. Similarly, GABA has several widely occurring receptor types, but all of them are inhibitory.[38] Because of this consistency, glutamatergic cells are frequently referred to as "excitatory neurons", and GABAergic cells as "inhibitory neurons". Strictly speaking this is an abuse of terminology—it is the receptors that are excitatory and inhibitory, not the neurons—but it is commonly seen even in scholarly publications.

    One very important subset of synapses are capable of forming memory traces by means of long-lasting activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength.[39] The best-known form of neural memory is a process called long-term potentiation (abbreviated LTP), which operates at synapses that use the neurotransmitter glutamate acting on a special type of receptor known as the NMDA receptor.[40] The NMDA receptor has an "associative" property: if the two cells involved in the synapse are both activated at approximately the same time, a channel opens that permits calcium to flow into the target cell.[41] The calcium entry initiates a second messenger cascade that ultimately leads to an increase in the number of glutamate receptors in the target cell, thereby increasing the effective strength of the synapse. This change in strength can last for weeks or longer. Since the discovery of LTP in 1973, many other types of synaptic memory traces have been found, involving increases or decreases in synaptic strength that are induced by varying conditions, and last for variable periods of time.[40] Reward learning, for example, depends on a variant form of LTP that is conditioned on an extra input coming from a reward-signalling pathway that uses dopamine as neurotransmitter.[42] All these forms of synaptic modifiability, taken collectively, give rise to neural plasticity, that is, to a capability for the nervous system to adapt itself to variations in the environment.
    Neural circuits and systems

    The basic neuronal function of sending signals to other cells includes a capability for neurons to exchange signals with each other. Networks formed by interconnected groups of neurons are capable of a wide variety of functions, including feature detection, pattern generation, and timing.[43] In fact, it is difficult to assign limits to the types of information processing that can be carried out by neural networks: Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts showed in 1943 that even networks formed from a greatly simplified mathematical abstraction of a neuron are capable of universal computation.[44] Given that individual neurons can generate complex temporal patterns of activity all by themselves, the range of capabilities possible for even small groups of interconnected neurons are beyond current understanding.[43]
    Illustration of pain pathway, from René Descartes's Treatise of Man

    Historically, for many years the predominant view of the function of the nervous system was as a stimulus-response associator.[45] In this conception, neural processing begins with stimuli that activate sensory neurons, producing signals that propagate through chains of connections in the spinal cord and brain, giving rise eventually to activation of motor neurons and thereby to muscle contraction, i.e., to overt responses. Descartes believed that all of the behaviors of animals, and most of the behaviors of humans, could be explained in terms of stimulus-response circuits, although he also believed that higher cognitive functions such as language were not capable of being explained mechanistically.[46] Charles Sherrington, in his influential 1906 book The Integrative Action of the Nervous System,[45] developed the concept of stimulus-response mechanisms in much more detail, and Behaviorism, the school of thought that dominated Psychology through the middle of the 20th century, attempted to explain every aspect of human behavior in stimulus-response terms.[47]

    However, experimental studies of electrophysiology, beginning in the early 20th century and reaching high productivity by the 1940s, showed that the nervous system contains many mechanisms for generating patterns of activity intrinsically, without requiring an external stimulus.[48] Neurons were found to be capable of producing regular sequences of action potentials, or sequences of bursts, even in complete isolation.[49] When intrinsically active neurons are connected to each other in complex circuits, the possibilities for generating intricate temporal patterns become far more extensive.[43] A modern conception views the function of the nervous system partly in terms of stimulus-response chains, and partly in terms of intrinsically generated activity patterns—both types of activity interact with each other to generate the full repertoire of behavior.[50]
    Reflexes and other stimulus-response circuits
    Simplified schema of basic nervous system function: signals are picked up by sensory receptors and sent to the spinal cord and brain, where processing occurs that results in signals sent back to the spinal cord and then out to motor neurons

    The simplest type of neural circuit is a reflex arc, which begins with a sensory input and ends with a motor output, passing through a sequence of neurons in between.[51] For example, consider the "withdrawal reflex" causing the hand to jerk back after a hot stove is touched. The circuit begins with sensory receptors in the skin that are activated by harmful levels of heat: a special type of molecular structure embedded in the membrane causes heat to change the electrical field across the membrane. If the change in electrical potential is large enough, it evokes an action potential, which is transmitted along the axon of the receptor cell, into the spinal cord. There the axon makes excitatory synaptic contacts with other cells, some of which project (send axonal output) to the same region of the spinal cord, others projecting into the brain. One target is a set of spinal interneurons that project to motor neurons controlling the arm muscles. The interneurons excite the motor neurons, and if the excitation is strong enough, some of the motor neurons generate action potentials, which travel down their axons to the point where they make excitatory synaptic contacts with muscle cells. The excitatory signals induce contraction of the muscle cells, which causes the joint angles in the arm to change, pulling the arm away.

    In reality, this straightfoward schema is subject to numerous complications.[51] Although for the simplest reflexes there are short neural paths from sensory neuron to motor neuron, there are also other nearby neurons that participate in the circuit and modulate the response. Furthermore, there are projections from the brain to the spinal cord that are capable of enhancing or inhibiting the reflex.

    Although the simplest reflexes may be mediated by circuits lying entirely within the spinal cord, more complex responses rely on signal processing in the brain.[52] Consider, for example, what happens when an object in the periphery of the visual field moves, and a person looks toward it. The initial sensory response, in the retina of the eye, and the final motor response, in the oculomotor nuclei of the brain stem, are not all that different from those in a simple reflex, but the intermediate stages are completely different. Instead of a one or two step chain of processing, the visual signals pass through perhaps a dozen stages of integration, involving the thalamus, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, superior colliculus, cerebellum, and several brainstem nuclei. These areas perform signal-processing functions that include feature detection, perceptual analysis, memory recall, decision-making, and motor planning.[53]

    Feature detection is the ability to extract biologically relevant information from combinations of sensory signals.[54] In the visual system, for example, sensory receptors in the retina of the eye are only individually capable of detecting "points of light" in the outside world.[55] Second-level visual neurons receive input from groups of primary receptors, higher-level neurons receive input from groups of second-level neurons, and so on, forming a hierarchy of processing stages. At each stage, important information is extracted from the signal ensemble and unimportant information is discarded. By the end of the process, input signals representing "points of light" have been transformed into a neural representation of objects in the surrounding world and their properties. The most sophisticated sensory processing occurs inside the brain, but complex feature extraction also takes place in the spinal cord and in peripheral sensory organs such as the retina.
    Intrinsic pattern generation

    Although stimulus-response mechanisms are the easiest to understand, the nervous system is also capable of controlling the body in ways that do not require an external stimulus, by means of internally generated rhythms of activity. Because of the variety of voltage-sensitive ion channels that can be embedded in the membrane of a neuron, many types of neurons are capable, even in isolation, of generating rhythmic sequences of action potentials, or rhythmic alternations between high-rate bursting and quiescence. When neurons that are intrinsically rhythmic are connected to each other by excitatory or inhibitory synapses, the resulting networks are capable of a wide variety of dynamical behaviors, including attractor dynamics, periodicity, and even chaos. A network of neurons that uses its internal structure to generate temporally structured output, without requiring a corresponding temporally structured stimulus, is called a central pattern generator.

    Internal pattern generation operates on a wide range of time scales, from milliseconds to hours or longer. One of the most important types of temporal pattern is circadian rhythmicity—that is, rhythmicity with a period of approximately 24 hours. All animals that have been studied show circadian fluctuations in neural activity, which control circadian alternations in behavior such as the sleep-wake cycle. Experimental studies dating from the 1990s have shown that circadian rhythms are generated by a "genetic clock" consisting of a special set of genes whose expression level rises and falls over the course of the day. Animals as diverse as insects and vertebrates share a similar genetic clock system. The circadian clock is influenced by light but continues to operate even when light levels are held constant and no other external time-of-day cues are available. The clock genes are expressed in many parts of the nervous system as well as many peripheral organs, but in mammals all of these "tissue clocks" are kept in synchrony by signals that emanate from a master timekeeper in a tiny part of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
    Development

    In vertebrates, landmarks of embryonic neural development include the birth and differentiation of neurons from stem cell precursors, the migration of immature neurons from their birthplaces in the embryo to their final positions, outgrowth of axons from neurons and guidance of the motile growth cone through the embryo towards postsynaptic partners, the generation of synapses between these axons and their postsynaptic partners, and finally the lifelong changes in synapses which are thought to underlie learning and memory.[56]

    All bilaterian animals at an early stage of development form a gastrula, which is polarized, with one end called the animal pole and the other the vegetal pole. The gastrula has the shape of a disk with three layers of cells, an inner layer called the endoderm, which gives rise to the lining of most internal organs, a middle layer called the mesoderm, which gives rise to the bones and muscles, and an outer layer called the ectoderm, which gives rise to the skin and nervous system.[57]
    Human embryo, showing neural groove

    Four stages in the development of the neural tube in the human embryo

    In vertebrates, the first sign of the nervous system is the appearance of a thin strip of cells along the center of the back, called the neural plate. The inner portion of the neural plate (along the midline) is destined to become the central nervous system (CNS), the outer portion the peripheral nervous system (PNS). As development proceeds, a fold called the neural groove appears along the midline. This fold deepens, and then closes up at the top. At this point the future CNS appears as a cylindrical structure called the neural tube, whereas the future PNS appears as two strips of tissue called the neural crest, running lengthwise above the neural tube. The sequence of stages from neural plate to neural tube and neural crest is known as neurulation.

    In the early 20th century, a set of famous experiments by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold showed that the formation of nervous tissue is "induced" by the underlying mesoderm. For decades, though, the nature of the induction process defeated every attempt to figure it out, until finally it was resolved by genetic approaches in the 1990s. Induction of neural tissue requires inhibition of the gene for a so-called bone morphogenetic protein, or BMP. Specifically the protein BMP4 appears to be involved. Two proteins called Noggin and Chordin, both secreted by the mesoderm, are capable of inhibiting BMP4 and thereby inducing ectoderm to turn into neural tissue. It appears that a similar molecular mechanism is involved for widely disparate types of animals, including arthropods as well as vertebrates. In some animals, however, another type of molecule called Fibroblast Growth Factor or FGF may also play an important role in induction.

    Induction of neural tissues causes formation of neural precursor cells, called neuroblasts.[58] In drosophila, neuroblasts divide asymmetrically, so that one product is a "ganglion mother cell" (GMC), and the other is a neuroblast. A GMC divides once, to give rise to either a pair of neurons or a pair of glial cells. In all, a neuroblast is capable of generating an indefinite number of neurons or glia.

    As shown in a 2008 study, one factor common to all bilateral organisms (including humans) is a family of secreted signaling molecules called neurotrophins which regulate the growth and survival of neurons.[59] Zhu et al. identified DNT1, the first neurotrophin found in flies. DNT1 shares structural similarity with all known neurotrophins and is a key factor in the fate of neurons in Drosophila. Because neurotrophins have now been identified in both vertebrate and invertebrates, this evidence suggests that neurotrophins were present in an ancestor common to bilateral organisms and may represent a common mechanism for nervous system formation.
    Pathology
    Main article: Neurology
    See also: Psychiatry

    The nervous system is susceptible to malfunction in a wide variety of ways, as a result of genetic defects, physical damage due to trauma or poison, infection, or simply aging. The medical specialty of neurology studies the causes of nervous system malfunction, and looks for interventions that can alleviate it.

    The central nervous system is protected by major physical and chemical barriers. Physically, the brain and spinal cord are surrounded by tough meningeal membranes, and enclosed in the bones of the skull and spinal vertebrae, which combine to form a strong physical shield. Chemically, the brain and spinal cord are isolated by the so-called blood-brain barrier, which prevents most types of chemicals from moving from the bloodstream into the interior of the CNS. These protections make the CNS less susceptible in many ways than the PNS; the flip side, however, is that damage to the CNS tends to have more serious consequences.

    Although peripheral nerves tend to lie deep under the skin except in a few places such as the ulnar nerve near the elbow joint, they are still relatively exposed to physical damage, which can cause pain, loss of sensation, or loss of muscle control. Damage to nerves can also be caused by swelling or bruises at places where a nerve passes through a tight bony channel, as happens in carpal tunnel syndrome. If a peripheral nerve is completely transected, it will often regenerate, but for long nerves this process may take months to complete. In addition to physical damage, peripheral neuropathy may be caused by many other medical problems, including genetic conditions, metabolic conditions such as diabetes, inflammatory conditions such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases such as leprosy or shingles, or poisoning by toxins such as heavy metals. Many cases have no cause that can be identified, and are referred to as idiopathic. It is also possible for peripheral nerves to lose function temporarily, resulting in numbness as stiffness—common causes include mechanical pressure, a drop in temperature, or chemical interactions with local anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine.

    Physical damage to the spinal cord may result in loss of sensation or movement. If an injury to the spine produces nothing worse than swelling, the symptoms may be transient, but if nerve fibers in the spine are actually destroyed, the loss of function is usually permanent. Experimental studies have shown that spinal nerve fibers attempt to regrow in the same way as peripheral nerve fibers, but in the spinal cord, tissue destruction usually produces scar tissue that cannot be penetrated by the regrowing nerves.
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 6:47 am

    D: it's not there :'(

    Spoiler:
    umad?










    153
    ^ made me lol
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 6:50 am

    Spoiler:
    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Loner154
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 6:53 am

    Spoiler:
    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce

    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bouncebounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce
    155 XD
    bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce bounce
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 6:59 am

    Spoiler:
    For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. For the treatment of precipitates in analytical chemistry, see Precipitation (chemistry)#Digestion.
    "Entrails" redirects here. For the practice of reading entrails, see Extispicy.

    Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. Digestion is a form of catabolism: a breakdown of large food molecules to smaller ones.

    In mammals, food enters the mouth, being chewed by teeth, with chemical processing beginning with chemicals in the saliva from the salivary glands. This is called mastication. Then it travels down the oesophagus into the stomach, where hydrochloric acid kills most contaminating microorganisms and begins mechanical break down of some food (e.g., denaturation of protein), and chemical alteration of some. The hydrochloric acid also has a low pH, which allows enzymes to work more efficiently. After some time (typically an hour or two in humans, 4–6 hours in dogs, somewhat shorter duration in house cats, ...), the resulting thick liquid is called chyme. Chyme will go through the small intestine, where 95% of absorption of nutrients occurs, through the large intestine with waste material eventually being eliminated during defecation.[1]

    Other organisms use different mechanisms to digest food.
    Contents
    [hide]

    1 Digestive systems
    1.1 Secretion systems
    1.1.1 Channel transport system
    1.1.2 Molecular syringe
    1.1.3 Conjugation machinery
    1.1.4 Release of outer membrane vesicles
    1.2 Phagosome
    1.3 Gastrovascular cavity
    1.4 Specialized organs and behaviors
    1.4.1 Beaks
    1.4.2 Tongue
    1.4.3 Teeth
    1.4.4 Crop
    1.4.5 Abomasum
    1.4.6 Specialized behaviors
    1.5 In earthworms
    2 Overview of vertebrate digestion
    3 Human digestion process
    3.1 Phases of gastric secretion
    3.2 Oral cavity
    3.3 Pharynx
    3.4 Esophagus
    3.5 Stomach
    3.6 Small intestine
    3.7 Large intestine
    4 Fat digestion
    5 Digestive hormones
    6 Significance of pH in digestion
    7 Uses of animal gut by humans
    8 See also
    9 References
    10 External links

    [edit] Digestive systems

    Digestive systems take many, many forms. There is a fundamental distinction between internal and external digestion. External digestion was the first to evolve, and most fungi still rely on it.[2] In this process, enzymes are secreted into the environment surrounding the organism, where they break down an organic material, and some of the products diffuse back to the organism. Later, animals evolved by rolling into a tube and acquiring internal digestion, which is more efficient because more of the broken down products can be captured, and the chemical environment can be more efficiently controlled.[3]

    Some organisms, including nearly all spiders, simply secrete biotoxins and digestive chemicals (e.g., enzymes) into the extracellular environment prior to ingestion of the consequent "soup". In others, once potential nutrients or food is inside the organism, digestion can be conducted to a vesicle or a sac-like structure, through a tube, or through several specialized organs aimed at making the absorption of nutrients more efficient.
    [edit] Secretion systems
    Main article: Secretion

    Bacteria use several systems to obtain nutrients from other organisms in the environments.
    [edit] Channel transport system

    In a channel transport system several proteins form a contiguous channel traversing the inner and outer membranes of the bacteria. It is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein (MFP), and outer membrane protein (OMP)[specify]. This secretion system transports various molecules, from ions, drugs, to proteins of various sizes (20 - 900 kDa). The molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, (10 kDa) to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 900 kDa.[4]
    [edit] Molecular syringe

    One molecular syringe is used through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia) can inject proteins into eukaryotic cells. One such mechanism was first discovered in Y. pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the bacterial cytoplasm into the cytoplasm of its host's cells rather than simply be secreted into the extracellular medium.[5]
    [edit] Conjugation machinery
    Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. Conjugation diagram 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, brings the two cells together. 3- The mobile plasmid is nicked and a single strand of DNA is then transferred to the recipient cell. 4- Both cells recircularize their plasmids, synthesize second strands, and reproduce pili; both cells are now viable donors.

    The conjugation machinery of some bacteria (and archaeal flagella) is capable of transporting both DNA and proteins. It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host which develops the crown gall (tumor).[6] The VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the prototypic system.[7]

    The nitrogen fixing Rhizobia are an interesting case, wherein conjugative elements naturally engage in inter-kingdom conjugation. Such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter the plant cell nucleus and effectively transform the plant cells into factories for the production of opines, which the bacteria use as carbon and energy sources. Infected plant cells form crown gall or root tumors. The Ti and Ri plasmids are thus endosymbionts of the bacteria, which are in turn endosymbionts (or parasites) of the infected plant.

    The Ti and Ri plasmids are themselves conjugative. Ti and Ri transfer between bacteria uses an independent system (the tra, or transfer, operon) from that for inter-kingdom transfer (the vir, or virulence, operon). Such transfer creates virulent strains from previously avirulent Agrobacteria.
    [edit] Release of outer membrane vesicles

    In addition to the use of the multiprotein complexes listed above, Gram-negative bacteria possess another method for release of material: the formation of outer membrane vesicles.[8] Portions of the outer membrane pinch off, forming spherical structures made of a lipid bilayer enclosing periplasmic materials. Vesicles from a number of bacterial species have been found to contain virulence factors, some have immunomodulatory effects, and some can directly adhere to and intoxicate host cells. While release of vesicles has been demonstrated as a general response to stress conditions, the process of loading cargo proteins seems to be selective.[9]
    [edit] Phagosome

    A phagosome is a vacuole formed around a particle absorbed by phagocytosis. The vacuole is formed by the fusion of the cell membrane around the particle. A phagosome is a cellular compartment in which pathogenic microorganisms can be killed and digested. Phagosomes fuse with lysosomes in their maturation process, forming phagolysosomes. In humans, Entamoeba histolytica can phagocytose red blood cells.[10]
    Trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica with ingested erythrocytes
    [edit] Gastrovascular cavity

    The gastrovascular cavity functions as a stomach in both digestion and the distribution of nutrients to all parts of the body. Extracellular digestion takes place within this central cavity which is lined with the gastrodermis, the internal layer of epithelium. This cavity has only one opening to the outside that functions as both a mouth and an anus: waste and undigested matter is excreted through the mouth/anus, which can be described as an incomplete gut.
    Aboral end
    Oral end
    Mouth
    Oral end
    Aboral end
    Exoderm
    Gastroderm
    Mesoglea
    Digestive cavity
    Medusa (left) and polyp (right)[11]

    In a plant such as the Venus Flytrap that can make its own food through photosynthesis, it does not eat and digest its prey for the traditional objectives of harvesting energy and carbon, but mines prey primarily for essential nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus in particular) that are in short supply in its boggy, acidic habitat.[12]
    Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) leaf
    [edit] Specialized organs and behaviors
    Catalina Macaw exhibits its seed shearing beak.
    Squid beak and ruler for size comparison.
    Teeth of a Carcharodon megalodon.
    Rough illustration of a ruminant digestive system.

    To aid in the digestion of their food animals evolved organs such as beaks, tongues, teeth, a crop, gizzard, and others.
    [edit] Beaks

    Macaws primarily eat seeds, nuts, and fruit, using their impressive beaks to open even the toughest seed. First they scratch a thin line with the sharp point of the beak, then they shear the seed open with the sides of the beak.

    The mouth of the squid is equipped with a sharp horny beak mainly made of chitin[13] and cross-linked proteins. It is used to kill and tear prey into manageable pieces. The beak is very robust, but does not contain any minerals, unlike the teeth and jaws of many other organisms, including marine species.[14] The beak is the only indigestible part of the squid.
    [edit] Tongue
    Main article: Tongue

    The tongue is skeletal muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing (mastication) and swallowing (deglutition). It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva. The underside of the tongue is covered with a smooth mucous membrane. The tongue is utilised to roll food particles into a bolus before being transported down the esophagus through the use of peristalsis. The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is a location where the oral mucosa is very thin, and underlain by a plexus of veins. This is an ideal location for introducing certain medications to the body. The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
    [edit] Teeth
    Main article: Teeth

    Teeth (singular, tooth) are small whitish structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of tissues of varying density and hardness. The shape of an animal's teeth is related to its diet. For example, plant matter is hard to digest, so herbivores have many molars for chewing.

    The teeth of carnivores are shaped to kill and tear meat, using specially shaped canine teeth. Herbivores' teeth are made for grinding food materials, in this case, plant parts.
    [edit] Crop

    A crop, or croup, is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion. In some birds it is an expanded, muscular pouch near the gullet or throat. In adult doves and pigeons, the crop can produce crop milk to feed newly hatched birds.[15]

    Certain insects may have a crop or enlarged esophagus.
    [edit] Abomasum
    Main article: Abomasum

    Herbivores have evolved cecums (or an abomasum in the case of ruminants). Ruminants have a fore-stomach with four chambers. These are the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. In the first two chambers, the rumen and the reticulum, the food is mixed with saliva and separates into layers of solid and liquid material. Solids clump together to form the cud (or bolus). The cud is then regurgitated, chewed slowly to completely mix it with saliva and to break down the particle size.

    Fiber, especially cellulose and hemi-cellulose, is primarily broken down into the volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in these chambers (the reticulo-rumen) by microbes: (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi). In the omasum water and many of the inorganic mineral elements are absorbed into the blood stream.

    The abomasum is the fourth and final stomach compartment in ruminants. It is a close equivalent of a monogastric stomach (e.g., those in humans or pigs), and digesta is processed here in much the same way. It serves primarily as a site for acid hydrolysis of microbial and dietary protein, preparing these protein sources for further digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Digesta is finally moved into the small intestine, where the digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs. Microbes produced in the reticulo-rumen are also digested in the small intestine.
    [edit] Specialized behaviors
    A flesh fly "blowing a bubble". One explanation of this behaviour is that the fly regurgitates its food into a bubble in order to increase the concentration of its food by evaporating excessive water content

    Regurgitation has been mentioned above under abomasum and crop, referring to crop milk, a secretion from the lining of the crop of pigeons and doves with which the parents feed their young by regurgitation.[16]

    Many sharks have the ability to turn their stomachs inside out and evert it out of their mouths in order to get rid of unwanted contents (perhaps developed as a way to reduce exposure to toxins).

    Other animals, such as rabbits and rodents, practice coprophagia behaviors - eating specialized feces in order to re-digest food, especially in the case of roughage. Capybara, rabbits, hamsters and other related species do not have a complex digestive system as do, for example, ruminants. Instead they extract more nutrition from grass by giving their food a second pass through the gut. Soft fecal pellets of partially digested food are excreted and generally consumed immediately. They also produce normal droppings, which are not eaten.

    Young elephants, pandas, koalas, and hippos eat the feces of their mother, probably to obtain the bacteria required to properly digest vegetation. When they are born, their intestines do not contain these bacteria (they are completely sterile). Without them, they would be unable to get any nutritional value from many plant components.
    [edit] In earthworms

    An earthworm's digestive system consists of a mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, and intestine. The mouth is surrounded by strong lips which act like a hand to grab pieces of dead grass, leaves, and weeds, with bits of soil to help chew. The lips break the food down into smaller pieces. In the pharynx the food is lubricated by mucus secretions for easier passage. The esophagus adds calcium carbonate to neutralize the acids formed by food matter decay. Temporary storage occurs in the crop where food and calcium carbonate are mixed. The powerful muscles of the gizzard churn and mix the mass of food and dirt. When the churning is complete, the glands in the walls of the gizzard add enzymes to the thick paste which aid in the chemical breakdown of the organic matter. By peristalsis the mixture is sent to the intestine where friendly bacteria continue chemical breakdown. This releases carbohydrates, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals for absorption into the body.
    [edit] Overview of vertebrate digestion

    In most vertebrates, digestion is a multi-stage process in the digestive system, starting from ingestion of raw materials, most often other organisms. Ingestion usually involves some type of mechanical and chemical processing. Digestion is separated into four steps:

    Ingestion: placing food into the mouth (entry of food in the digestive system),
    Mechanical and chemical breakdown: mastication and the mixing of the resulting bolus with water, acids, bile and enzymes in the stomach and intestine to break down complex molecules into simple structures,
    Absorption: of nutrients from the digestive system to the circulatory and lymphatic capillaries through osmosis, active transport, and diffusion, and
    Egestion (Excretion): Removal of undigested materials from the digestive tract through defecation.

    Underlying the process is muscle movement throughout the system through swallowing and peristalsis. Each step in digestion requires energy, and thus imposes an "overhead charge" on the energy made available from absorbed substances. Differences in that overhead cost are important influences on lifestyle, behavior, and even physical structures. Examples may be seen in humans, who differ considerably from other hominids (lack of hair, smaller jaws and musculature, different dentition, length of intestines, cooking, etc.).

    The major part of digestion takes place in the small intestine. The large intestine primarily serves as a site for fermentation of indigestible matter by gut bacteria and for resorption of water from digesta before excretion.

    In mammals, preparation for digestion begins with the cephalic phase in which saliva is produced in the mouth and digestive enzymes are produced in the stomach. Mechanical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth where food is chewed, and mixed with saliva to begin enzymatic processing of starches. The stomach continues to break food down mechanically and chemically through churning and mixing with both acids and enzymes. Absorption occurs in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, and the process finishes with defecation.[1]
    [edit] Human digestion process
    Main article: Human gastrointestinal tract
    Upper and Lower human gastrointestinal tract

    The whole digestive system is around 9 meters long. In a healthy human adult this process can take between 24 and 72 hours. Food digestion physiology varies between individuals and upon other factors such as the characteristics of the food and size of the meal.[17]
    [edit] Phases of gastric secretion

    Cephalic phase - This phase occurs before food enters the stomach and involves preparation of the body for eating and digestion. Sight and thought stimulate the cerebral cortex. Taste and smell stimulus is sent to the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. After this it is routed through the vagus nerve and release of acetylcholine. Gastric secretion at this phase rises to 40% of maximum rate. Acidity in the stomach is not buffered by food at this point and thus acts to inhibit parietal (secretes acid) and G cell (secretes gastrin) activity via D cell secretion of somatostatin.
    Gastric phase - This phase takes 3 to 4 hours. It is stimulated by distension of the stomach, presence of food in stomach and decrease in pH. Distention activates long and myenteric reflexes. This activates the release of acetylcholine which stimulates the release of more gastric juices. As protein enters the stomach, it binds to hydrogen ions, which raises the pH of the stomach. Inhibition of gastrin and gastric acid secretion is lifted. This triggers G cells to release gastrin, which in turn stimulates parietal cells to secrete gastric acid. Gastric acid is about 0.5% hydrochloric acid (HCl), which lowers the pH to the desired pH of 1-3. Acid release is also triggered by acetylcholine and histamine.
    Intestinal phase - This phase has 2 parts, the excitatory and the inhibitory. Partially digested food fills the duodenum. This triggers intestinal gastrin to be released. Enterogastric reflex inhibits vagal nuclei, activating sympathetic fibers causing the pyloric sphincter to tighten to prevent more food from entering, and inhibits local reflexes.

    [edit] Oral cavity
    Main article: Mouth (human)

    In humans, digestion begins in the oral cavity where food is chewed. Saliva is secreted in large amounts (1-1.5 litres/day) by three pairs of exocrine salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) in the oral cavity, and is mixed with the chewed food by the tongue. The saliva serves to clean the oral cavity and moisten the food, and contains digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase, which aids in the chemical breakdown of polysaccharides such as starch into disaccharides such as maltose. It also contains mucus, a glycoprotein which helps soften the food and form it into a bolus. An additional enzyme, lingual lipase, hydrolyzes long-chain triglycerides into partial glycerides and free fatty acids.

    Swallowing transports the chewed food into the esophagus, passing through the oropharynx and hypopharynx. The mechanism for swallowing is coordinated by the swallowing center in the medulla oblongata and pons. The reflex is initiated by touch receptors in the pharynx as the bolus of food is pushed to the back of the mouth.
    [edit] Pharynx
    Main article: Human pharynx

    The pharynx is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately behind the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus. It is part of the digestive system and respiratory system. Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue, the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or asphyxiation.

    The oropharynx is that part of the pharynx which lies behind the oral cavity and is lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The nasopharynx lies behind the nasal cavity and like the nasal passages is lined with ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium.

    Like the oropharynx above it the hypopharynx (laryngopharynx) serves as a passageway for food and air and is lined with a stratified squamous epithelium. It lies inferior to the upright epiglottis and extends to the larynx, where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge. At that point, the laryngopharynx is continuous with the esophagus. During swallowing, food has the "right of way", and air passage temporarily stops.
    [edit] Esophagus
    Main article: esophagus

    The esophagus is a narrow muscular tube about 20-30 centimeters long which starts at the pharynx at the back of the mouth, passes through the thoracic diaphragm, and ends at the cardiac orifice of the stomach. The wall of the esophagus is made up of two layers of smooth muscles, which form a continuous layer from the esophagus to the colon and contract slowly, over long periods of time. The inner layer of muscles is arranged circularly in a series of descending rings, while the outer layer is arranged longitudinally. At the top of the esophagus, is a flap of tissue called the epiglottis that closes during swallowing to prevent food from entering the trachea (windpipe). The chewed food is pushed down the esophagus to the stomach through peristaltic contraction of these muscles. It takes only about seven seconds for food to pass through the esophagus and now digestion takes place.
    [edit] Stomach
    Main article: Stomach

    The stomach is a small, 'J'-shaped pouch with walls made of thick, elastic muscles, which stores and helps break down food. Food which has been reduced to very small particles is more likely to be fully digested in the small intestine, and stomach churning has the effect of assisting the physical disassembly begun in the mouth. Ruminants, who are able to digest fibrous material (primarily cellulose), use fore-stomachs and repeated chewing to further the disassembly. Rabbits and some other animals pass some material through their entire digestive systems twice. Most birds ingest small stones to assist in mechanical processing in gizzards.

    Food enters the stomach through the cardiac orifice where it is further broken apart and thoroughly mixed with gastric acid, pepsin and other digestive enzymes to break down proteins. The enzymes in the stomach also have an optimum, meaning that they work at a specific pH and temperature better than any others. The acid itself does not break down food molecules, rather it provides an optimum pH for the reaction of the enzyme pepsin and kills many microorganisms that are ingested with the food. It can also denature proteins. This is the process of reducing polypeptide bonds and disrupting salt bridges which in turn causes a loss of secondary, tertiary or quaternary protein structure. The parietal cells of the stomach also secrete a glycoprotein called intrinsic factor which enables the absorption of vitamin B-12. Other small molecules such as alcohol are absorbed in the stomach, passing through the membrane of the stomach and entering the circulatory system directly. Food in the stomach is in semi-liquid form, which upon completion is known as chyme.

    After consumption of food, digestive "tonic" and peristaltic contractions begin which help to break down the food and move it through.[17] When the chyme reaches the opening to the duodenum known as the pylorus, contractions "squirt" the food back into the stomach through a process called retropulsion, which exerts additional force and further grinds down food into smaller particles.[17] Gastric emptying is the release of food from the stomach into the duodenum; the process is tightly controlled with liquids being emptied much more quickly than solids.[17] Gastric emptying has attracted medical interest as rapid gastric emptying is related to obesity and delayed gastric emptying syndrome is associated with diabetes mellitus, aging, and gastroesophageal reflux.[17]

    The transverse section of the alimentary canal reveals four (or five, see description under mucosa) distinct and well developed layers within the stomach:

    Serous membrane, a thin layer of mesothelial cells that is the outermost wall of the stomach.
    Muscular coat, a well-developed layer of muscles used to mix ingested food, composed of three sets running in three different alignments. The outermost layer runs parallel to the vertical axis of the stomach (from top to bottom), the middle is concentric to the axis (horizontally circling the stomach cavity) and the innermost oblique layer, which is responsible for mixing and breaking down ingested food, runs diagonal to the longitudinal axis. The inner layer is unique to the stomach, all other parts of the digestive tract have only the first two layers.
    Submucosa, composed of connective tissue that links the inner muscular layer to the mucosa and contains the nerves, blood and lymph vessels.
    Mucosa is the extensively folded innermost layer. It can be divided into the epithelium, lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosae, though some consider the outermost muscularis mucosae to be a distinct layer, as it develops from the mesoderm rather than the endoderm (thus making a total of five layers). The epithelium and lamina are filled with connective tissue and covered in gastric glands that may be simple or branched tubular, and secrete mucus, hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen and rennin. The mucus lubricates the food and also prevents hydrochloric acid from acting on the walls of the stomach.

    [edit] Small intestine
    Main article: Small intestine

    It has three parts Duodenum, Ileum and Jejunum.

    After being processed in the stomach, food is passed to the small intestine via the pyloric sphincter. The majority of digestion and absorption occurs here after the milky chyme enters the duodenum. Here it is further mixed with three different liquids:

    Bile, which emulsifies fats to allow absorption, neutralizes the chyme and is used to excrete waste products such as bilin and bile acids. Bile is produced by the liver and then stored in the gallbladder. The bile in the gallbladder is much more concentrated.
    Pancreatic juice made by the pancreas.
    Intestinal enzymes of the alkaline mucosal membranes. The enzymes include maltase, lactase and sucrase (all three of which process only sugars), trypsin and chymotrypsin.

    The pH level increases in the small intestine. A more basic environment causes more helpful enzymes to activate and begin to help in the breakdown of molecules such as fat globules. Small, finger-like structures called villi, each of which is covered with even smaller hair-like structures called microvilli improve the absorption of nutrients by increasing the surface area of the intestine and enhancing speed at which nutrients are absorbed. Blood containing the absorbed nutrients is carried away from the small intestine via the hepatic portal vein and goes to the liver for filtering, removal of toxins, and nutrient processing.

    The small intestine and remainder of the digestive tract undergoes peristalsis to transport food from the stomach to the rectum and allow food to be mixed with the digestive juices and absorbed. The circular muscles and longitudinal muscles are antagonistic muscles, with one contracting as the other relaxes. When the circular muscles contract, the lumen becomes narrower and longer and the food is squeezed and pushed forward. When the longitudinal muscles contract, the circular muscles relax and the gut dilates to become wider and shorter to allow food to enter.
    [edit] Large intestine
    Main article: Large intestine

    After the food has been passed through the small intestine, the food enters the large intestine. Within it, digestion is retained long enough to allow fermentation due to the action of gut bacteria, which breaks down some of the substances which remain after processing in the small intestine; some of the breakdown products are absorbed. In humans, these include most complex saccharides (at most three disaccharides are digestible in humans). In addition, in many vertebrates, the large intestine reabsorbs fluid; in a few, with desert lifestyles, this reabsorbtion makes continued existence possible.

    In humans, the large intestine is roughly 1.5 meters long, with three parts: the cecum at the junction with the small intestine, the colon, and the rectum. The colon itself has four parts: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. The large intestine absorbs water from the bolus and stores feces until it can be egested. Food products that cannot go through the villi, such as cellulose (dietary fiber), are mixed with other waste products from the body and become hard and concentrated feces. The feces is stored in the rectum for a certain period and then the stored feces is eliminated from the body due to the contraction and relaxation through the anus. The exit of this waste material is regulated by the anal sphincter.
    [edit] Fat digestion
    Wiki letter w cropped.svg This section requires expansion with:
    digestion of other substances.

    The presence of fat in the small intestine produces hormones which stimulate the release of lipase from the pancreas, largely to the liver for further processing, or to fat tissue for storage.
    [edit] Digestive hormones
    Action of the major digestive hormones

    There are at least five hormones that aid and regulate the digestive system in mammals. There are variations across the vertebrates, as for instance in birds. Arrangements are complex and additional details are regularly discovered. For instance, more connections to metabolic control (largely the glucose-insulin system) have been uncovered in recent years.

    Gastrin - is in the stomach and stimulates the gastric glands to secrete pepsinogen (an inactive form of the enzyme pepsin) and hydrochloric acid. Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by food arriving in stomach. The secretion is inhibited by low pH .
    Secretin - is in the duodenum and signals the secretion of sodium bicarbonate in the pancreas and it stimulates the bile secretion in the liver. This hormone responds to the acidity of the chyme.
    Cholecystokinin (CCK) - is in the duodenum and stimulates the release of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and stimulates the emptying of bile in the gall bladder. This hormone is secreted in response to fat in chyme.
    Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) - is in the duodenum and decreases the stomach churning in turn slowing the emptying in the stomach. Another function is to induce insulin secretion.
    Motilin - is in the duodenum and increases the migrating myoelectric complex component of gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin.

    [edit] Significance of pH in digestion

    Digestion is a complex process which is controlled by several factors. pH plays a crucial role in a normally functioning digestive tract. In the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus, pH is typically about 6.8, very weakly acidic. Saliva controls pH in this region of the digestive tract. Salivary amylase is contained in saliva and starts the breakdown of carbohydrates into monosaccharides. Most digestive enzymes are sensitive to pH and will denature in a high or low pH environment.

    The stomach's high acidity inhibits the breakdown of carbohydrates within it. This acidity confers two benefits: it serves to denature proteins for further digestion in the small intestines, and provides non-specific immunity, damaging or eliminating various pathogens.[citation needed]

    In the small intestines, the duodenum provides critical pH balancing to activate digestive enzymes. The liver secretes bile into the duodenum to neutralize the acidic conditions from the stomach, and the pancreatic duct empties into the duodenum, adding bicarbonate to neutralize the acidic chyme, thus creating a neutral environment. The mucosal tissue of the small intestines is alkaline with a pH of about 8.5.[citation needed]
    [edit] Uses of animal gut by humans

    The stomachs of calves have commonly been used as a source of rennet for making cheese.
    The use of animal gut strings by musicians can be traced back to the third dynasty of Egypt. In the recent past, strings were made out of lamb gut. With the advent of the modern era, musicians have tended to use strings made of silk, or synthetic materials such as nylon or steel. Some instrumentalists, however, still use gut strings in order to evoke the older tone quality. Although such strings were commonly referred to as "catgut" strings, cats were never used as a source for gut strings[citation needed].
    Sheep gut was the original source for natural gut string used in racquets, such as for tennis. Today, synthetic strings are much more common, but the best gut strings are now made out of cow gut.
    Gut cord has also been used to produce strings for the snares which provide the snare drum's characteristic buzzing timbre. While the snare drum currently almost always uses metal wire rather than gut cord, the North African bendir frame drum still uses gut for this purpose.
    "Natural" sausage hulls (or casings) are made of animal gut, especially hog, beef, and lamb. Similarly, Haggis is traditionally boiled in, and served in, a sheep stomach.
    Chitterlings, 155 a kind of food, consist of thoroughly washed pig's gut.
    Animal gut was used to make the cord lines in longcase clocks and for fusee movements in bracket clocks, but may be replaced by metal wire.
    The oldest known condoms, from 1640 AD, were made from animal intestine.[18]










    Spoiler:
    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Mehro2509why so mad? D:<
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:02 am

    157, LOL @ second spoiler XDD

    anyways im going bowling in a bit Razz
    have you ever played gunz? o:
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:03 am

    158. Nope, but I could download it
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:05 am

    159
    It's nothing like runescape :3
    and i play a prive server :L
    the game is for quick people.. for instance the best move requires to type 30 buttons in under 2 seconds Smile fun game
    youtube.com/watch?v=SfyTDJOzdhQ&lc
    ^ made that with a friend xD
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:07 am

    160.
    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Mona_lisa_-_forever_alone_large
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:08 am

    161
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:09 am

    162 [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 3912376022
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:10 am

    163 Arrow
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:11 am

    164 downloading now [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 3912376022
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:12 am

    165
    you dling ijji gunz? xD
    i play ssgunz Smile it's a small new server but its nice Very Happy
    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 SeagullThief


    Last edited by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 4:51 pm; edited 1 time in total
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:13 am

    166 downloading SsGunz [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 3912376022
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:15 am

    167 oo cool <3
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:16 am

    168. what's your name there? (Refer thingy)
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:17 am

    169 Unique - ssgunz.com/?ref=231
    (:
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:18 am

    170. k. [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 3912376022
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:20 am

    171,to do list:
    • gunna go on ssgunz
    • fiddle around with therealm.tk
    • go downstairs and eat.
    • take a shower
    • go out with mates

    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:23 am

    172. way bigger than my to-do-list.
    My Anti-Virus won't let me download the client >_>
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:43 am

    173, im guessing you got avg or norton? or some rubbish anti virus? XD
    Npc
    Npc
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 226
    Points : 226
    Reputation : 0
    Join date : 2011-08-19
    Age : 23
    Location : In a pitch black room playing Runescape ^_^

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Npc on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:46 am

    174. Avast ^_^
    I'll just run the Client in a Sandbox
    Sam
    Sam
    Dharoks Local
    Dharoks Local

    Posts : 239
    Points : 255
    Reputation : 4
    Join date : 2011-08-17
    Age : 23
    Location : Check your wardrobe <3

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sam on Sat Aug 20, 2011 7:52 am

    175 Surprised, i got avast too xD o.O nothing detected on me.. probs cuz im on gaming mode

    Sponsored content

    [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game] - Page 7 Empty Re: [the number game] the best forum game ever! [the number game]

    Post by Sponsored content


      Current date/time is Fri Sep 20, 2019 8:46 am